Actual number: 4/2020

ISSN 1339-5017 (Online)

Archive:


No. 2-3

HUMAN TISSUE CULTURES FOR VACCINES PRODUCTION

Author: Vladimír OLEÁR, Mária ŠTEFKOVIČOVÁ, Zuzana KRIŠTÚFKOVÁ

Abstract: There have been arguments, particularly from religious reasons, on the ethics regarding some culture media being used in the production of traditional viral vaccines. At present, human cells (tissue and cell cultures, cell lines) can be used almost exclusively for cultivation of strictly human type viruses, including their propagation and growth. Tissue cultures that are used in the manufacture of vaccines as basic enrichment media and, for some viruses, are important due to the possibility of re-use (as opposed to the chick embryo). Where possible, animal tissue and cell cultures, such as VERO cells or canine kidney cells, are also used for the purpose of the development and production of viral vaccines. Other tissue cultures are prepared based on human cells originally derived from spontaneously or artificially aborted embryos. Human cell cultures cannot be regarded as cultures that would selfregenerate, for example, from new cells derived from fetal organs through spontaneous or artificial abortion. Cell cultures are self-reproduced and their DNA cannot be used for cloning. It should be emphasized that no abortion was carried out for the purposes of vaccine development. A review of the literature on cell cultures used for vaccine production

Keywords: tissue culture, cell line, vaccine

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 2-6

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ASSESMENT OF SMALL DENSITY LDL IN FAMILIAR CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

Author: Jana NETRIOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Natália KALÚSOVÁ

Abstract: Elevated concentration of small dense LDL (sdLDL) has been shown to be closely associated with cardiovascular diseases. Situation is however more complicated by the influence of frequently occurring comorbidities, genetic predisposition and environmental influences. The aim of our study was to determine the average concentrations of sdLDL in the Slovakian population and to estimate its relationship with routinely used laboratory markers of cardiovascular diseases. Venous blood samples from 122 volunteers were tested for concentrations of sdLDL, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein a. High correlation was quite expectedly found between sdLDL and LDL-cholesterol (Pearson´s R=0,70) and sdLDL with ApoB (Pearson´s R=0,86). We also performed family screening of 5 families with the individuals with elevated parameters with the signs of genetic load, but subsequent molecular biological analysis must be carried out. The sdLDL parameter seems to be a very good predictor of cardiovascular diseases, however only in the case of its complex evaluation with another factors and treatment factors, such as hyperbaric oxygenotherapy.

Keywords: laboratory medicine, cardiovascular risk, sdLDL

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 7-11

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THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH KIDNEY CANCER

Author: Iveta MATIŠÁKOVÁ, Ján BIELIK, Katarína TUŽINČINOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Branislav BYSTRICKÝ, Ján KLIMENT, Roman SOKOL

Abstract: Background: In Slovakia, the number of people suffering from the kidney cancer has been increasing, while being one of the most malignant urological tumors. In our study, we were focusing on the quality of life of people suffering from this disease.
Goals: The goal of study was to find out what impact the kidney carcinoma has on the patients´ quality of life.
Sample: Our sample consists of patients with kidney carcinoma who are treated in selected urological clinics.
Methods: We chose a method of quantitative research. The data collection method was a combined questionnaire.
Results: The results of our study point to the general quality of life of patients suffering from a kidney carcinoma. We discovered the negative impact of this disease on the quality of professional and social life, as well as life in general. This disease also negatively affects the patients´ family members.
Conclusion: The kidney carcinoma has a negative effect on the patients´ quality of life. In order to increase the life quality, it is essential to focus on early diagnosis, a more effective treatment of this disease, proper edification and sufficient patients´ awareness.

Keywords: quality of life, kidney cancer

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 12-16

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DISCOMFORT OF NURSES IN PROVIDING END-OF-LIFE CARE

Author: Dagmar MASTILIAKOVÁ, Eva KUBICZKOVÁ

Abstract: Background: The research was aimed at identification of the major stressors and characteristics of the discomfort that nurses experience in providing end-of-life care in the current conditions of hospital environments.

Research sample and methods: The research sample consisted of 105 nurses and medical assistants (7 men and 98 women). 38 (36.2%) respondents worked in acute care wards, and 67 (63.8%) in subsequent care wards in Silesian Hospital in Opava. The research data was obtained by means of a questionnaire.

Results: The survey was carried out mainly by the experienced staff 89 (84.8%) of respondents (depending on the length of their healthcare practice from 6 to 31 years and more in the field of health care). With the death of patients at their workplaces they encounter approx. 4 to 6 times per month: 32 (30.5%) of the respondents encounter with the death of patients. The same number, 32 (30.5%) of respondents encounters with death from 7 to 9 times per month, and finally 10 times or more 5 (4.7%) respondents. 68 (64.8%) respondents are fully aware of need to provide emotional support to a dying person. The feeling of exhaustion in provision of emotional support is evident in the majority of the respondents 38 (36.2%) and “rather yes” claimed 29 (27.6%) respondents. The most common form of emotional support “the presence of a nurse” reported 30 (27.5%) of respondents. The most common feeling in the presence of a dying 50 (36%) of respondents there was reported “a regret”. The most stressful situation in the end-of-life care was considered “communication with a family”, by 75 (42.1%) of respondents. The most frequent reaction in experiencing stressful situation was reported “excitability” 41 (37.3%) of respondents. Three most frequent factors out of 11 that contribute to the stress at workplace, “lack of time for performing work duties” were claimed by  62 (22.5%) of respondents. For 53 (19.2%) of respondents it was “lack of staff” and for 50 other (18.1%) it was “administration duties”.  The majority of respondents 48 (45.7%) claimed that nurses are not sufficiently prepared to cope with stressful situations at workplace, and “no” was indicated by 13 (12.4%) of respondents.

Conclusions: Research confirmed that provision of end-of-life care belongs to chief sources of stress in nurses. The other sources of stress are the following: “lack of time to satisfy working duties”, “lack of personnel” and “administrative duties”. Feeling of discomfort is caused also by feeling “regret”, hopelessness and helplessness, anxiety, fear, worry, helplessness, pain, irritability, insomnia and others.

Keywords: discomfort, nurse, stress, nursing care, dying patient, death

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 17-29

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MULTI-SIDED UPBRINGING OF A CHILD IN FAMILY

Author: Małgorzata PRZYBYSZ-ZAREMBA, Maciej KOŁODZIEJSKI

Abstract: The authors present several opinions on family in the context of an institution responsible for multisided upbringing of a child. The initiatory period of a child in family especially abounds in parents' and microsocial neighbourhood's activities of protective, cultural, social, moral, ethical character. The attention is also paid to the basis of upbringing processes present during socialisation and inculturation. What is also emphasised is the fact that all parental activities should aim at child's sake keeping to its subjective and independent character.

Keywords: family, multi-sided upbringing, inculturation, socialisation

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 30-36

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INTEGRATING MENTALLY DISABLED PERSONS INTO SOCIETY

Author: Darina ŠIMOVCOVÁ

Abstract: Mental disabilities most often occur as a consequence of heavy, especially chronic mental disorders. The disability progresses gradually and limits the life of a patient, who cannot accomplish his or her tasks in life. It appears chiefly in the field of partner and family roles, in self-care, employment, social relations. Everything depends on the expectations of the others. The focus of social psychiatric nursing approach is the integration of individuals with mental disorders into society, through therapy and rehabilitation.

Keywords: mental disorders, psychiatric rehabilitation, socio therapy, integration

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 37-41

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NURSING THEORY OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

Author: Helena KOŇOŠOVÁ

Abstract: Introduction. The need for a partnership between nurse and client is very substantial in nursing practice. Hildegard E. Peplau (1909-1999) is often recognised as the mother of psychiatric nursing but her ideas have influenced all fields of nursing. Peplau first time described the therapeutic relationship in nursing in her book Interpersonal Relations in Nursing.

Core. According to Peplau nursing is an interpersonal process. Peplau identifies four phases in interpersonal relationship: orientation, identification, exploitation, and resolution. Each patient responds selectively to nurse. The response of the patient can be: 1 participate and interdependent with the nurse; 2 autonomous and independent from the nurse; 3 passive and dependent on the nurse. Peplau defines individual (man) as an organism that strives in its own way to reduce tension generated by needs. The client in het theory is an individual with a felt need. Health is defined as a word symbol that implies forward movement of personality and other ongoing human processes in the direction of creative, constructive, productive, personal, and community living. Hildegard Peplau considers nursing to be a significant, therapeutic, interpersonal process. She defines it as a “human relationship between an individual who is sick, or in need of health services, and a nurse specially educated to recognize and to respond to the need for help.” Major concepts within this process are nurse, patient, therapeutic relationship, goals, human needs, anxiety, tension and frustration.

Conclusion. Peplau was influenced by Sullivan’s interpersonal theory, motivation theory of Abraham Maslow and Sigmund Freud’s theory of psychodynamics. Peplau theory has contributed to the body of knowledge not only psychiatric-mental health nursing but nursing in general.

Keywords: nursing theory, interpersonal process, psychiatric nursing

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 42-44

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POSSIBILITIES OF HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY USAGE IN COMPREHENSIVE TREATMENT OF SELECTED HEARING DISEASES AND DISORDERS

Author: Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Rastislav ZIGO, Vladimír MELUŠ

Abstract: Hearing disorders in congenital or progressive forms in childhood as well as in elderly period of life are very important factors, lowering patient´s quality of life and increasing of healthcare costs. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy could be very effective tool in the comprehensive healthcare in patients. In our minireview are described baseline premises for the exploitation of oxygen facilities at higher pressure for healing of auditory system.

Keywords: hearing loss, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, quality of life.

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 45-53

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POOR POSTURE IN YOUNG FOOTBALLERS AGED 11 TO 13

Author: Miroslav ČERNICKÝ, Lubomír KRÁL, NEUPAUEROVÁ Nikola

Abstract: The article focuses on the poor posture and mobility of the spine in children and subsequent use of exercises aimed at strengthening muscle corset in the treatment of this diagnosis system in remedial gymnastics. The goal of the contribution is to determine the effectiveness of therapeutic exercises aimed at the increase of muscular corset muscles in the treatment of poor posture in children. The goal of paper is also to identify and describe the occurrence of bad posture in the sample of participants and determine range of motion of the spine. The survey sample consisted of 19 boys aged from 11 to 13 years, who are pupils of Football Class 6 C, at the elementary school in Trenčín. The survey consisted of non-standardized questionnaire of our own design. The survey shows that the high percentage of children (68.42% of our respondents) complains of poor posture. The survey also shows that the regular exercises focused on strengthening muscle corset for three months at an output tests positively affected poor posture of children (57.89%), and there was also proven the improvement in spinal mobility.

Keywords: functional postural disorders, muscle imbalance, poor posture, therapeutic physical education

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 54-58

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PLACE THE HANDBALL IN THE CONTEXT OF SPORTS AND RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES AT THE SECONDARY SCHOOL POPULATION

Author: Karol GÖRNER, Michał SPIESZNY, Sylwia KOP

Abstract: The aim of this research is an attempt of establishing the ways of organizing and estimating the popularity of handball among junior-high school boys and girls in comparison to other free-time sport interests. As a result of a draw, 10% of all junior-high schools were chosen from the Krakow region and two randomly chosen first-grade groups (295 girls and 330 boys). The diagnostic survey method was used in gathering material. 8% of teenagers participate in after-school activities. Junior-high schools do not organize a handball section as an after-school activity. Teenagers prefer sport activities that they themselves arrange and the popularity of handball is low- it is not higher than 1% among the examined teenagers of both sexes. Although 32.2% of female junior-high students and 41.1% of male junior-high students’ exercise in sport clubs, the popularity of handball is on the seventh place among girls (1.4%) and on the third place among boys (3%).

Keywords: handball, children’s and teenagers’ sport, free-time activities

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 59-66

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ACUPUNCTURE AND BREAST CANCER

Author: Jana SLOBODNÍKOVÁ, Miroslav ČERNICKÝ

Abstract: Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease occurring in female population in the world. The primary etiology is unknown. Early detection is achieved by screening or preventive examinations. The incidence of breast cancer in stages Tis and T1 grows and the treatment, beside the operation, includes radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Acupuncture is a healing method commonly associated with the treatment of backache, headache, muscle pain, etc. But could it be applied in the treatment of breast cancer too? This study attempts to cast more light on this issue. The author presents results of selected clinical studies.

Keywords: breast cancer, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, acupuncture, natural medicine

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 67-71

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APPROACH TO FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN IN CHILDREN

Author: Adriana ONDRUŠOVÁ

Abstract: Fever is a common problem for children and outpatient general practitioner febrile children with a third of examinations. Febrile illness of children can be divided into categories fever with localized signs of where the diagnosis is established based on history and physical examination; and fever without source; fever without adequate explanation despite a detailed history, physical examination and laboratory screening. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in children is defined as a fever higher than 38.3°C, at least 14 days, at which it is diagnosed, despite a thorough medical history, physical examination and laboratory screening in the clinic or family doctor for at least a week-long hospitalization. In most cases, the responsible FUO infection, then systemic diseases, cancers are less common. The basis for clarifying the causes is the medical history, physical examination and laboratory screening. In fever of unknown origin empirical antibiotic treatment or anti-inflammatory treatment is not ecommended. However, in many cases, notwithstanding realized examinations fail to establish a definitive diagnosis and fever subsides over time and children are in good clinical condition

Keywords: fever of unknown origin, children, diagnosis

Vol. 9, 2015, No. 2-3, p. 72-77

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