Actual number: 4/2020

ISSN 1339-5017 (Online)

Archive:


No. 1

CANCELLING OBLIGATORY MASS VACCINATION OF NEWBORNS AGAINST TB IN SLOVAKIA: PREDICTED DEVELOPMENT

Author: Elena Marušáková, Ján Bielik, Klára Frecerová, Eva Nevická, Darina Sedláková

Abstract: The aim of the paper is to use modelling to predict possible changes in the incidence of active tuberculosis if mass vaccination of newborns in Slovakia is cancelled. Our secondary aim is to analyze the cost-effectiveness of mass primovaccination of newborns in Slovakia with BCG vaccine against tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) as compared to no vaccination at all.

The model analyses the two above-mentioned scenarios in children aged 0 – 14 years for a period of 15 years. Our results show that the cost of preventing one case of active tuberculosis in children aged 0 - 14 years would be by € 784.30 less if mass vaccination of newborns is applied, when compared to the cancellation of mass vaccination.

The number of active tuberculosis cases would remain stable with a gradually decreasing trend if mass vaccination were to continue. If mandatory vaccination is cancelled, the number of active tuberculosis cases would be as much as five times higher in the model cohort.

Based on this analysis, we conclude that that it would be useful to model and monitor different strategies for general practitioners, paediatricians, pneumologists and epidemiologists to make a qualified decision how to proceed with BCG vaccination in Slovakia 

Keywords: active tuberculosis epidemiology prediction, modelling, tuberculosis vaccination, cost effectiveness analysis

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 02-11

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INFLUENCE OF SELECTED TRITERPENOIDS ON CHEMOPREVENTION AND THERAPY OF BREAST CANCER

Author: Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Slávka PETROVÁ, Jana NETRIOVÁ

Abstract: Breast cancer is hormone signaling failures-related disease and the second leading cause of female cancer mortality. Among plant-based agents, triterpenoids have emerged as a promising group of phytochemicals with proposed anti-cancer activity. They are the major components of some oriental and traditional medicine herbs wildly distributed all over the world. Triterpenoids are relatively non-toxic and could be used as chemopreventive / chemoprotective agens in clinical praxis. Numerous studies using cell culture assays and animal models of cancer have revealed, that triterpenoids hold great potential not only in the therapy of breast cancer but also in preventing this disease. However, further studies are needed to explore the full potential of these agents.

Keywords: triterpenoids, breast cancer, chemoprevention

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 12-18

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QUALITY CONTROL AND INTERPRETATION OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY RESULTS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE

Author: Vladimír MELUŠ, Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Jana NETRIOVÁ

Abstract: Management of quality control and keeping of good laboratory praxis principles in molecular diagnostics is crucial for getting correct results. Standard PCR-RFLP methods still remain backup alternative to real-time PCR techniques in routine laboratory medicine diagnostics. In our paper we summarized basic and most frequent sources of errors and miss-interpretation of their results. We specified basic steps and algorithms of the proper solution of the most frequent problems with accent to the minimization of time, costs and reputation losses.

Keywords: Quality control, PCR-RFLP, errors, electrophoreogram

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 19-28

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MEASUREMENT OF FUNCTIONAL SELF - SUFFICIENCY

Author: Patrícia BAŇÁROVÁ, Miroslav ČERNICKÝ, Peter KUTIŠ

Abstract: Testing status of patients before and after treatment is an essential part of determination a medical procedure and evaluating of the effectiveness of therapy. A significant change in the assessment of health care is a shift from a purely medical point of view in terms of valorisation of the patient himself. In recent years it is the patient’s perception of his own physical, mental status and psychosocial function has become an important issue in the development of new instruments used for the evaluation of therapeutic effects. The quality of patient’s life has thus becoming one of the basic endpoints. One of the most widely used tests is the Functional Independence Measure. The Functional Independence Measure is an 18 – item, 7 – level scale developed to uniformly assess severity of patient disability and medical rehabilitation functional outcome.

Keywords: Functional Independence Measure. Independence. Self – sufficiency.

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 29-36

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POTENCY OF MUSIC TO EASE TRANSITION TO MIDDLE SCHOOL THROUGH THE PERSPECTIVE OF CASE STUDY – FINAL RESEARCH REPORT

Author: Eva Králová

Abstract: The study explores the potency of music activities and background music to ease the transition from elementary to middle school. The transitive period is accompanied by emotional non-stability and low self-image of a child which are vital for his/her further personal growth and healthy development.

The target research group consists of 44 Slovak fifth graders from big urban, municipal middle school. The study summarises results of multiple case study of the potency of music intervention to ease transition to middle school. The results show that the potency was the most powerful in human bonding (interpersonal relationships); perception of social classroom climate; attitude toward school surrounding; reducing pupils´ fear of subjects, examination, testing and poor academic results.

Keywords: music intervention, social classroom climate, attitude toward school, transitive period

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 37-44

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IMPORTANCE OF SUPPORTING SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING OF PUPILS IN THEIR TRANSITION TO MIDDLE SCHOOL

Author: Eva Králová

Abstract: This paper is concerned with the process of transition from elementary to middle school. It begins with the definitions of the main terms, particularly of American, English, Czech and Slovak researchers in the field of pedagogical psychology.

It explores social and emotional changes that children face during this time and the way they can be helped to deal with these changes. Harmonious adaptation to middle school results from the child´s ability to satisfy his/her needs within the environment. School staff and parents need to pay attention to friendships and social well-being; emotional well-being and self-esteem of pupils.

Further attention is devoted to traditional and contemporary research of transition to middle school, specifically to physical development, identity development of a child and the growth of abstract thought.

Keywords: developmental transitions, emotional well-being, preadolescence, self-esteem, school transitions

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 45-53

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EDUCATION IN MASTER STUDY PROGRAM NURSING IN SLOVAKIA

Author: Iveta Matišáková, Katarína Gerlichová, Daniela Knápková

Abstract: Nursing is regulated profession and the education of nurses is focused on acquiring specialized skills. Specialized skills comprise knowledge, skills, values, which allow one to work as independent professional. According to the System of the fields of study, study program Nursing can be studied in the first university education degree (bachelor), in the second university education degree (master) and in the third university education degree (Philosophiae doctor). Nowadays, nurses can study the program Nursing at universities in two graduates and a post-graduate level. In our article, we compared the content of curriculum in master graduate program Nursing on individual universities.

Keywords: nursing, education, master study program

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 54-59

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EVALUATION IN CLINICAL STUDY SUBJECTS NURSING IN GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS

Author: Eva Červeňanová

Abstract: The author of this report represents own knowledge and experience of teaching nursing students - full-time nurses in the study, the subject of clinical nursing in obstetrics and gynecology. It represents the time and content fixation of seminars conducted directly through internships in clinical conditions and results of surveys in which students have the opportunity to assess satisfaction with teaching in this way, to express their opinions and give suggestions for improvement.

Keywords: nurse, nursing and midwifery in gynecology, internships, clinical environment, teaching

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 60-65

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RISK FACTORS OF ALLERGIC DISEASES

Author: Nikoleta Poliaková

Abstract: Objective: The aim of presented paper was to determine relationship of the development of allergic diseases and child's age, gender, family history of allergy, breastfeeding, supplementation or mother’s nutrition during breastfeeding.

Methods: The research method of questionnaires was designed for healthy and allergic children. The sample consisted of 228 healthy children aged 0-15 years and 183 allergic children aged 0-15 years.

Results: The research results indicated that the development of allergic diseases was significantly related to age, genetic predisposition, and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The risk of allergic diseases increased with early supplementation with milk substitute formulas and citrus consumption during lactation.

Conclusion: The results can be applied in the care of children and adolescents.

Keywords: allergic diseases, risk factors, children, prevention

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 66-70

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MODERN SKI TUITION WITH THE SHORT – SKI METHOD

Author: Lubomír Král

Abstract: The aim of the article is to get specialists acquainted with the simple, natural and funny short-ski method. It is unnatural to snow plow standing and snow plow turns are nowadays considered the old fashioned elements from the technical point of view. They also slow the process of ski teaching. The article introduces one of the possibilities how to avoid this traditional element and not to slow down the pace of ski learning. On the contrary, the aim of the modern ski methods is to speed-up the learning process and to make it more pleasant for learners.

Keywords: Ski teaching, Methodology of skiing on shorties, Short ski – shorties

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 71-76

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EFFECT OF UP TO DATE SKI TEACHING METHODOLOGIES ON PUPILS´ATTITUDES TOWARDS SKIING

Author: Lubomír Král

Abstract: The author of the paper presents possible effect of innovative ski teaching methodologies on pupils´ attitudes. The research was carried in ski courses for elementary schools. There were used two different teaching methodologies.

The research showed that short ski carving ski technique was proven more significant factor which had impact on pupils´ attitudes towards skiing.

Keywords: teaching methodologies, ski teaching, short ski, attitudes, feelings

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 77-82

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CHEST TRAUMA

Author: Jiří KLEIN

Abstract: Chest trauma can affect any one or all components of the chest wall and thoracic cavity (bony skeleton, lungs and tracheobronchial tree, heart and great vessels, esophagus and diaphragm). This review is focused on the pathophysiology, diagnostic and treatment of blunt and penetrating thoracic injuries.

Keywords: Chest trauma, penetrating chest trauma, blunt chest trauma, hemothorax, pneumothorax, thoracic traumatology

Vol. 6, 2012, No. 1, p. 83-94

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