Actual number: 4/2020

ISSN 1339-5017 (Online)

Archive:


No. 3

HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY AS ADJUNCTIVE STRATEGY IN RADIOTHERAPY

Author: Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Jana SLOBODNÍKOVÁ, Patrik KULIŠIAK, Katarína KAŠLÍKOVÁ

Abstract: In the previous several decades the radiotherapy has been widely used in the treatment of the broad spectrum of the malignant and non-malignant diseases. Similarly to other therapies, however, radiotherapy has its limits too. These include, in particular, the hypoxic environment of tumor tissues, which reduces its effectiveness. Another problem consists of secondary radio-necrosis. Both of these limits of radiotherapy can be to some extent eliminated with the help of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Previous case studies have demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of these complications. Still, there are no standard treatment procedures or consensus guidelines. It is necessary to carry out clinical studies with a larger number of samples and more detailed selection criteria.

Keywords: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Radiotherapy. Hypoxia. Radionecrosis. Radiosensitivity.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 1-4

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QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH HAEMOPHILIA – QUALITATIVE STUDY

Author: Nikoleta POLIAKOVÁ, Eva KRÁLOVÁ, Zuzana KIRIĽÁKOVÁ

Abstract: Haemophilia is hereditary disease that can affect the quality of life if the patient does not respect its limitations. Nowadays modern treatment can improve the quality of life. The aim of the study was to map which dimensions of quality of life are particularly affected by the disease. The sample consisted of four patients aged 14, 24, 40 and 60 with severe haemophilia type A. The research method was semi-structured interview. The results of the interviews indicate that the patients are the most limited in the physical area. In the symptomatology there predominated bladder and bleeding in the joints that lead to arthropathy in the elderly patients who experienced chronic joint pain. The risk of bleeding was reduced by a suitable choice of leisure time activities. They also had to adjust the disease to the selection of school and occupation. At the emotional level, there dominated the fear of establishing a family and of the gradual loss of self-sufficiency. The comparison of patient-to-patient responses indicated that to improve the quality of life, home-based treatment is a benefit. Owing to home-based treatment the hospitalisation, absenteeism at school and at work are decreased. With regard to maintaining the quality of life which is comparable to healthy people, an early education of parents and patients is important, focused on prophylactic activities. In childhood it is needed to educate about the proper administration of prophylactic treatment. The role of a nurse has a preventive and supportive character.

Keywords: Haemophilia. Quality of life. Restrictions. Support.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 5-10

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QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND HYPERTHYROIDISM

Author: Ján BIELIK, Emília SLÁVIKOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Matej BIELIK

Abstract: Background: Quality of life obtained from patients‘ data is becoming a significant part of treatment efficiency evaluation. Up until nw, there was not a study dedicated to QoL in patients with hypothereosis and hyperthereosis in Slovakia.

Methods: To find out the Quality of Life (QoL) in this study, an original QoL questionnaire developed by Faculty of Health, Alexander Dubcek university in Trencin (FoH TnUAD)  was used. The questionnaire is predominantly generic, and oriented towards  work ability (WA) as wells as QoL. The results were processed using basic statistical methods included in Excel 2013 software, while to determine statistically significant differences of the parametres compared Dunn‘s, Friedman‘s and Mann-Whitney‘ s tests were used.

Results: When evaluating the whole set, the current quality of life was at 7.8, at the time of diagnosing the disease it was 5.8, at the time of disease - 8.2, and finally in the time of full health, the quality of life reached 9.0 (1- worst, 10- best). In the group of patients with hyperthyroidism compared to the group of patients with hypothyroidism, results were: 6.4 vs. 7.3; 4.6 vs. 6.0; 7.6 vs. 8.3; 8.0 vs. 9.2. The average treatment time was 11.3 years. The mean duration of the symptoms before the diagnosis was 0.9 years. Patients visited an endocrionologist due to the disease 2.7 times a year and their general practitioner for an average of 3.4 times a year. Patients also evaluated their own personality, which can determine the perception of overall quality of life, ranging from 1 (pessimistic) to 5 (optimistic). The assessment of the expectations for the future was as follows: (1- worst, 5- best): health expectations 3.6; economical - 3,4; working - 3,6. Family expectations reached the highest rating - 4.2. Patients evaluated their disease awareness on a 5-point scale at 4.3, provided medical care 4.7, and nursing care 4.7 (1- worst, 5- best).

Conclusions: Quality of life varies significantly at the time of diagnosis and in treatment, both in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Quality of life is significantly worse at the time of diagnosis in hyperthyroidism. Drugs (Thyrozol, Propycil) have no significant effect on the quality of life in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Drugs (Euthyrox, L-Thyroxine BCH) have no significant effect on the quality of life in the treatment of hypothyroidism. The quality of life in patients with total strumectomy or unilateral lobectomy does not differ from patients with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

Keywords: Quality of life. Hypothyreoidism. Hyperthyreoidism.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 11-16

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OBESITY AS A CIVILIZATION DISEASE AND RISK FACTOR FOR BREAST CANCER

Author: Jana SLOBODNÍKOVÁ, Vladimír MELUŠ, Katarína KAŠLÍKOVÁ, Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ

Abstract: Obesity belongs to civilization diseases and is a risk factor for the occurrence of a number of serious diseases, including colon and breast carcinoma. Clinical and epidemiological studies have identified many important breast cancer risk factors. Some of these factors are intangible or beyond our control; such as age or family history. However, several modifiable lifestyle factors have been associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer. The aim of the minireview is summarisation of the effect of endogenous estrogen on breast cancer and these clinically meaningful findings should motivate programs for obesity prevention from the view of the selected current studies.

Keywords: Obesity. Breast cancer. Endogenous estrogen. Prevention.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 17-19

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USE OF MEDIUM FREQUENCY CURRENTS IN REHABILITATION

Author: Miroslav MALAY, Patrícia SHTIN BAŇÁROVÁ, Katarína KOVÁČOVÁ, Jana ZVERBÍKOVÁ

Abstract: The article highlights the possibilities of applying medium-frequency currents across a wide range of indications and a relatively small amount of contraindications. It briefly informs about the electrophysiological properties and therapeutic effects of currents beneficial to patients.

Keywords: Medium Frequency Currents. Interference currents. Rebox.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 20-23

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THE METHOD OF ASSESSMENT OF POSTURE

Author: Miroslav ČERNICKÝ, Patrícia SHTIN BAŇÁROVÁ, Katarína KOVÁČOVÁ

Abstract: Nowadays, people have an increasing problem with back pain and incorrect spine. Preventing and educating the proper holding of the body should therefore be the main goal. The problem of mistaking the body is good to capture at an early age because small children do not yet have stronger bones than adults, so there is a bigger chance of improving the skeleton's position, and the children are easier to get rid of the bad habits they get during their lifetime. Unfortunately, many children in the late age have a problem with holding the body. By puberty, problems with the spine do not end, but the body responds to all developmental changes. It is a period crucial for healthy spine development. Poor posture, scoliosis, are just signs that something is wrong with the back. We want to point out the model of proper body holding and the ways in which we evaluate body holding and are helpful in further diagnosis of the skeletal muscle system.

Keywords: Posture. Diagnostics. Child.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 24-26

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NURSING CASE MANAGEMENT

Author: Helena KOŇOŠOVÁ

Abstract: The current development of health services is characterized by multiple changes as a healthcare reimbursement, shortened length of stay and limited hospital resources, introduction of prospective payment system and increased expectations of quality health care. Case management can be also defined as a method which aims for the continuum of services and quality clinical results among specific clients in a context of efficient and effective resource management. Case management nurses provide care in hospitals. Case managers work with patients, families and other professionals. Case management nurses are registered nurses who coordinate all aspects of care for specified patients through the entire episode of illness. They facilitate admission and discharge processes. Case managers are responsible for the ongoing coordination, monitoring, and evaluation of the patient's progress along the clinical pathway or throughout the episode of illness. The essential skill for the case manager is a strong clinical background to understand the severity of clinical condition. The case management care plans are developed for select cases, diagnosis by multidisciplinary team. Through the use of clinical pathways, hospitals have consistently shown a reduced length of stay for the pathway specific case types or DRG without a detrimental effect on clinical outcomes. Clinical pathway describes care specific group of patients with diagnosis or DRGs. Clinical pathway help ensure high quality and cost-effective care. Nursing case management offers benefits to the patient and the institution. Nursing care manager must have a strong clinical expertise and critical thinking, strong interpersonal communication skills, collaborative relationship with physicians and colleagues. Case management is among the changes which enhance the role of the nurse.

Keywords: Nursing case management. Case manager. Clinical pathways. Diagnosis related groups.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 27-29

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OXYGEN THERAPY – GUIDELINESS, BENEFITS AND RISKS FOR ADULT PATIENTS

Author: Nikoleta POLIAKOVÁ, Zdenka KRAJČOVIČOVÁ, Eva KRÁLOVÁ, Antónia KUDLÁČKOVÁ

Abstract: The aim of oxygen therapy is to enrich the oxygen inhaled air in such an amount to maintain oxygen saturation in the blood above 90 %. Oxygen has specific biochemical and physiological functions, wide dosage range, but it also has undesirable effects. Administration of oxygen without hypoxemia or hypoxia is potentially harmful. The administration of high doses of oxygen over 50 % longer than 24 hours is at risk. Clear airways, preserved function of the pulmonary alleles and respiratory muscles and functional blood circulation is a prerequisite for effective oxygen therapy. The aim of the paper is to provide the review of the latest recommendations in oxygen therapy with emphasis on its benefits and the risks arising from evidence-based practice. 

Keywords: Oxygen Therapy. Applications of Oxygen. Risks of Oxygen Therapy. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 3, p. 30-35

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