Actual number: 4/2020

ISSN 1339-5017 (Online)

Archive:


No. 1

INVERSE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ELECTORAL PARTICIPATION IN WESTERN SLOVAKIA

Author: Marián BUŠŠA

Abstract: This paper argues that in the three regions in Western Slovakia, there is an inverse relationship between level of social capital and level of electoral participation. We first show our data on levels of social capital in three regions with centers in Trenčín, Trnava and Nitra and discuss how we can also get data for individual districts. Subsequently we compare these data with levels of electoral participation in the parliamentary election of 2012 and 2016. We find that at the level of five natural regional units the inverse relationship is quite significant. At the level of 30 districts the inverse relationship is significant only if we do not include the three atypical districts of regional capitals. These have high levels of both social capital and electoral participation. We suggest that the inverse relationship is a consequence of different patterns of political culture in the natural regions.

Keywords: social capital, electoral participation, civic associations, natural regions, Western Slovakia

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 1-4

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POVERTY AND CONCEPTS FOR ITS RESOLVING IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC

Author: Tomáš HABÁNIK

Abstract: Poverty represents an important social phenomenon occurring in both developed and developing countries. The multidimensional character of poverty is accompanied by a wide range of its causes, manifestations, and consequences that significantly affect not only individuals but also the whole society. Its very existence and permanent presence within the society lead us to considering whether the society´s structurally set concept is suitable or whether there are specific determinants within the society, relating to the presence of poverty. The aim of the study is to analyze the tools intended to resolve poverty in the Slovak Republic in conjunction with an analysis of the indicators determined for poverty measurement and studying.

Keywords: Poverty. Slovak republic. Concepts. Social services. 

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 5-9

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THE RIGHT OF SELF-DETERMINATION IN 21 CENTURY: COMPARATIVE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW PERSPECTIVE

Author: Jana ILIEVA

Abstract: The right of self-determination is a core and universal legitimating principle of international law. Yet, is one of the most contested right in the 21 century whose meaning is still ambiguous and has always been dependent on the actual political circumstances of the international community. The absence of broader international and political consensus on the content of this issue together with the legalistic deficit or regulation in the international law has opened many possibilities for political crisis and instabilities, worldwide. Many composite states have seen a very romantic vision for better future in this principle. Unification of Germany, independence of East Timor, South Sudan, Kosovo, the struggle for a secession of Catalonia are just examples of the significance but also problematical nature of this principle. The international law has never provided clear regulation for replying to minority aspirations and secession issues. As a result, in the 21 century, in the times of globalization when the international setting is quite different, the exercise of this right for the reasons of “secession” mostly because of its political context may become an “unhappy ending adventure” with unforeseeable consequences for the states.

Keywords: self-determination, secession, people(s), Kosovo, Catalonia

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 10-16

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THE MAIN POLITICAL QUESTIONS OF INVESTOR STATE DISPUTE SETTLEMENT

Author: Martin KARAS

Abstract: Investor-state dispute settlement has been in sharp focus for the past ten years. Most of the scholarly work on the topic is being done within the framework of legal analysis. This article focuses instead on the most important political question of the ISDS. Based on the relevant sources form the policy arena and academic texts, the article concludes that the three most important political issues of the ISDS regimes are: “regulatory chill”, inconsistency of tribunal decisions, and transparency. The aim of this article is to provide a critical analysis of these three questions, and to sketch out possible solutions. These goals will be accomplished through analysis of relevant documents, mainly scholarly publications and policy texts of the main political actors. The overarching conclusion of the analysis is importance of analyzing the ISDS regimes from the viewpoint of the political sciences.

Keywords: investor-state dispute settlement, international investment law, regulatory chill, inconsistency, transparency.

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 17-21

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POLISH PUBLIC OPINION TOWARDS DEMOCRACY

Author: Krzysztof ŁABĘDŹ

Abstract: In the course of the last two years, the model of democracy being implemented in Poland has been undergoing substantial changes, which consist in moving away from liberal democracy, and these changes do not reduce the considerable level of support for the ruling party. In this context, it is worthwhile to make an attempt at answering the question of what are the views and attitudes found among the Polish public that promote such a high level of support. The answer will be given based on results of public opinion polls understood as the sum total of responses in surveys. The main emphasis in the answer will be placed on such issues as the level of delegitimisation of the previously existing democratic system, the ambivalent attitude towards democracy itself as a principle constituting the political system, the continued high level of authoritarianism, the growth of xenophobic and conservative attitudes, the appreciation of traditional values and the great importance of positive evaluations of the level of material living standards.

Keywords: rule of Law and Justice, polish public opinion, attitudes towards democracy, legitimisation of the system, authoritarian and xenophobic attitudes.  

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 22-26

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DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT BASED ON POLITICAL AFFILIATION

Author: Aleksandra STOILKOVSKA-  Violeta MILENKOVSKA- Gordana SERAFIMOVIC

Abstract: Employee equity becomes one of the main concerns of human resource managers, given the fact that employees are increasingly protected by various laws and regulations for equal opportunities in the recruitment and selection process, as well as at the workplace itself. Therefore, the larger companies are developing a new trend that shows that they cherish equal employment opportunities, saying that it is about employment in a company that offers equal opportunities and fair treatment when employing all people regardless of race, sex, religion, nationality, type of disability or political affiliation in the final part of job vacancies and in the description of the job itself. The paper is an action research in the Republic of Macedonia, which examines persons employed in the last five years in the private sector. The survey included managers who carried out the recruitment and selection and employees in the process. In the work through a survey of respondents from the public sector, employed in the last five years, the existence of discrimination on a political basis is proven.

Keywords: discrimination, political affiliation, selection, employment

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 27-34

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The European Union vs. the Government in Warsaw. The political debate around the possibility of applying Article 7 of the European Union Treaty against Poland

Author: Małgorzata Świder

Abstract: Both the assumptions behind the reform of judiciary, the manner of its introducing and also other elements that influence the current perception of rule of law in Poland have recently become a topic of three plenary debates of the European Parliament. As a result, it was decided that a report on Poland would be prepared, which can offer the basis of applying Article 7, which means disciplining and punishing states that violate the European values. This has exacerbated the political atmosphere in Poland and, first of all, has affected the political debate going on in the country. It is starting to take a more and more brutal form and is characterized by a heavy load of colloquialism, negative expression, brutalization and disrespect for the adversary. Besides, it is being filled with more and more plays on words, jokes and irony. Such a debate is based on destructive premises and brings results of the same effect in practice, especially as it is often conducted also on the international arena and is closely followed by the public opinion abroad. Consequently, in discussions, instead of substantive arguments, there frequently appear expressions which bear evaluations and strong emotions.

Keywords: rule of law, European Parliament, political debate, constitutional crisis

Vol. 12, 2018, No. 1, p. 35-39

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