No. 1

The relationship between the level of social capital and the effectiveness of local governments in western Slovakia

Author: Marián BUŠŠA

Abstract: In this article we explored the relationship between the level of social capital and the effectiveness of local governments. This relationship should be positive, since the theory (Putnam – Leonardi – Nanetti 1993) suggests that high levels of social capital cause greater effectiveness of state in given area. Despite this, we have found negative correlation between the variables, contrary to our hypothesis. That is unexpected, yet interesting outcome. The cause for this may be intervening factors in this relationship, most notably the different size of researched municipalities and very recent municipal elections. To rule out methodological causes, we intend to repeat the research with new data using more cases and more kinds of data to measure both variables.

Keywords: effectiveness, local government, social capital, Western Slovakia

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 1-5

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Author: Pavol HRIVÍK

Abstract: The study deals with the presentation of some initiatives referring to political and security cooperation within European integration, the birth and development of the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), its primary-law frame, with the starting of Permanent Structured Cooperation (PESCO) and evaluating its achieved state. Moreover, there is judged participation and activity of France and Germany within CSDP, forming a new enhanced (supranational) partnership between the both states with a goal markedly to strengthen multilateral cooperation of EU Member States mainly in political, security, defence and military areas, and to shift this cooperation onto the supranational European level. In the study, the attention is also devoted to informal obstacles for a birth and shaping defence-military alliance within the Union (such as national mentality, security culture or strategic culture) and there is judged a possibility of creation of a common European army of a supranational character.

Keywords: EU, Lisbon Treaty, CSDP, informal obstacles, new Franco-Germany partnership, PESCO, common European army

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 6-12

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Author: Vladimír Kováčik

Abstract: The Czech Republic, as well as other Visegrad Four countries, has been able to draw European Union funds since their accession to the EU in 2004. There are many ways to measure the impact of the implementation of EU funds in programming period 2007-2013, but we have to take into account that countries had different starting positions at the beginning of the programming period in many socio-economic indicators. Prior the implementation of 2007-2013, the Czech Republic was the most affluent country of the group where the GDP per capita was close to 80% of the EU-28 average in 2006 and emerged as a regional leader in many indicators. The level of implementation efficiency of allocated EU funds differs among the V4 countries in 2007-2013. One of the key indicators of implementation efficiency is gap between contracting and payment ratio. As a direct impact of implementation of EU funds, the V4 economies were growing much faster than the EU average in 2007-2015. The situation on the labour market in the V4 countries improved considerably in 2007-2015, is caused mostly by implementation of operational programmes, mostly those programmes which were financed from European social fund. The employment rate increased significantly in the period and came close to the EU-28 average. Especially in the Czech Republic, the unemployment rate was very low in that period compared to other V4 countries, but also to EU-28. In 2016 the Czech Republic became the country with lowest unemployment in EU.

Keywords: Regional policy, Operational Program, Czech Republic, Programming period 2007-2013, EU funds, Visegrad Four, implementation

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 13-21

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Author: Krzysztof ŁABĘDŹ

Abstract: This paper presents some of the problems concerning the current relations between the state authorities and the ruling party and the institutional Church, with the primary objective to show the discrepancies from the normative assumptions. Another objective is to indicate the probability of the thesis that the current situation is a departure from the normative solutions adopted in Poland (which a majority of the public identify with the desired state) and also from the assumptions of the Catholic social teaching. On the one hand, the Church was for the most part engaged in politics on the side of one political camp, and on the other hand, the state does not maintain ideological neutrality and implements solutions proposed by the institutional Church irrespective of the views of the non-believers or even some of the believers. The basic sources used in the paper are media statements and also different sorts of documents. The basis for drawing conclusions will be an analysis of these statements and documents as well as the application of the interpretational approach that enables drawing conclusions concerning the views, preferences and motives of the people involved in an action.

Keywords: relations between the state and the Church in Poland, normative assumptions, Polish bishops statements, Church support for the PiS, rule of Law and Justice.

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 22-27

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Sanctions against Russia. The problem for European Union?

Author: Sergiusz LEWCZENKO

Abstract: The following article is concerned on the problem of anti-Russian sanctions which was imposed by the European Union Author of the research, by means of content analysis, researched mainly in European and American press titles and reports of the press agencies: Reuters, EUobserver, the Guardian, Bloomberg, Financial Times, The Washington Post. Also was included the Russian press (ТАСС, Независимая газета, Ведомости), as well as official documents of the European Union.
Then, author chose that articles, which concerned the anti-Russian sanctions, and he studied them under the perspective of few questions: What was the purpose of the sanctions imposed on Russia? What position choose individual countries about sanctions? How is their effectiveness assessed? In the result of the research, author had provided exhaustive answers to all the questions. Sanctions are very expensive for Europe Union, they doing too much harm to European economies. But sanctions also have a serious negative consequence for Russian economy.

Keywords: European Union, sanctions, Russia, economy policy, Ukraine

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 28-35

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Author: Dominik MARCINKOWSKI

Abstract: The following article is concerned on the press discourse which was created on the background of the climate conference, COP24, in Katowice (the event took place from 3 to 15 December 2018). Author of the research, by means of content analysis and critical discourse analysis, researched the following press titles: “Gazeta Wyborcza”, “Polityka”, “Rzeczpospolita”, “Do Rzeczy” and “Nasz Dziennik”. Then, author chose that articles, that were dealt about session of climate summit in Katowice, and he studied them under the perspective of three subjects: 1) hopes, which press commentators had in case of COP24; 2) opinions about official statements of Polish politicians during conference’s inauguration; 3) opinions about importance of COP24 for Poland and global climate policy. The main results of the research show, that the chosen press titles had expressed various, but usually critical, opinions about climate conference in Katowice. Conservative press payed a higher attention to economic and social interest of Poland. For liberal press, though, more important was inclusive work in the global field of environment protection and creating Polish good image.

Keywords: Poland, COP24, discourse, climate policy, energetic policy, environment protection.

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 36-42

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Commercialisation of the non-governmental organisations


Abstract: The research of the non-profit sector generally has got a little attention by the academics in our geographical scope. However, in recent years there has been an increase in interest in social entrepreneurship, but not just in non-profit sector, and other types of social businesses models due to several changes that occur in a competitive environment. The term “commercialisation” has mostly negative connotations in contrast to self-financing, social entrepreneurship, and related terms. According to Frič, P. et al. the academic community is realising the commercialization of civic organizations very well, but it does not give it enough or no attention whatsoever. Since the late 90s, commercialization and the profit-oriented activities of civic organizations resonated as a quite controversial topic among the organizations of the civic sector themselves (Frič et al., 1998). Today, the non-profit organizations operate in a highly competitive environment, which is to a large extent characterized by the growing needs of their target groups and community. It also arises more competitive and generally more stringent funding environment with growing competition for donors and grant schemes (Frič et al., 1998).

Keywords: commercialisation, non-profit organizations, civic sector, non-governmental organisations, foundation

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 43-45

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Author: Miroslav Řádek

Abstract: Conference paper Election Program of the Political Party Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia is focused on the analysis of election programs for parliamentary elections 2006 to 2016. Kotleba - People's Party Our Slovakia joined these elections under different names and in different organizational form and partly changed content of its electoral program. The results of the parliamentary elections also brought significantly different support for this political party. Therefore, the paper tries to find a link between election programs and its election profit in the elections to the National Council of the Slovak Republic 2006, 2010, 2012 and 2016.

Keywords: political party, Kotleba people´s party, political party, elections, parliament, election program 

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 46-50

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Nationalism in Poland in the 20th and the 21st century

Author: Małgorzata ŚWIDER

Abstract: The first Polish organizations of modern nationalism appeared in the 19th century. In the time after World War I there followed a quick development of such organizations which very often assumed a radical character. They attracted, primarily, young people who were active in squads attacking Jews and Germans. Moreover, this movement took interest in Fascism and its ideology. After World War II, nationalism got reborn anew. Communists resorted to taking advantage of nationalistic slogans in order to mobilize and unite the society. Nationalistic politicians who were active in the prewar period were even allowed to resume their political activity and organizations of the overtly nationalistic character have been free to be established since the 1980s. Consequently, at the beginning of the 1990s either new organizations were set up or those founded in the 1930s reactivated. In the 21st century, they are redefining their ideology and activity, targeting not only their traditional enemies, but also the European Union, migrants and all the “Alien”. Recently, they have been especially active on the Polish political stage.

Keywords: Independence, anti-Semitism, Catholic Church, patriotism, communism

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 51-57

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Author: Peter HORVÁTH

Abstract: The paper addresses the position of the Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic, especially from the perspective of the election of constitutional judges. In addition to the presidential elections and the European Parliament elections, the year 2019 is characterized by the search for new constitutional judges. In addition to personnel selection, also the election of judges of the Constitutional Court seems to be a big political issue. In the parliament, there are supporters and opponents of the public or secret ballot. Both camps present their arguments, which are fundamentally antagonistic. It turns out that in the conditions of representative democracy, it is very difficult to find a reasonable compromise on the issue of the election itself. So we present the views of both sides. This paper is based on a comparative and analytical approach, using examples from several countries, not only within the European Union. It can be stated that a person of the president of the Slovak Republic plays a fundamental role in the whole process, because his powers are crucial in this - if, after a political struggle, parliament finally submits twice as many candidates as needed for vacancies of the Constitutional Court judges, it will be the head of state who will ultimately decide on a total of thirteen judges who will decide the next twelve years on all processes related to the control of our country's right constitutional direction.

Keywords: Constitutional Court, judge of the Constitutional Court, election method, representative democracy

Vol. 13, 2019, No. 1, p. 58-67

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